In my research, I investigate how religion and politics have clashed and intertwined in Europe since the fifteenth century. My first book ‘Between Popes, Inquisitors and Princes’ reveals how the early Jesuits collaborated with authorities from the church and state – often undercover – to defend Christendom from heresy and establish themselves as the pre-eminent religious order of their day. I am now researching the history of the popes’ political power, considering how their influence changed over the early modern period and what this can tell us about changing perceptions of Church and state.

In addition to writing and speaking about my research, I contribute articles on a range of related subjects to non-academic publications. I also provide tutoring and mentorship to young people and university students in both the private and state sector. I have a particular interest in projects that seek to widen access to élite education for the brightest young historians, irrespective of their socio-economic background.

  • BA History of Art, Courtauld Institute (University of London) (First class)
  • MA Cultural and Intellectual History 1300-1650, Warburg Institute (University of London) (Distinction)
  • PhD Modern History, University of St Andrews
  • Seventh Century Scholar, University of St Andrews
  • Rome Scholar, British Academy
  • Study Fellow, Society for Renaissance Studies
  • Russell Trust Awardee, Russell Trust